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Common complications

Common complications:


  • Generalised vasomotor dysfunction
  • Raynaud’s syndrome
  • Digital necrosis
  • Skin ulceration
  • Chilblains 
  • Gangrene leading to amputation
  • Nail growth disturbances
  • Hypothermia due to constant cooling
  • Trophic skin changes
  • Nerve damage (from soaking/icing)
  • Vascular problems – oedema, venous insufficiency and lymphoedema
  • High requirements for pain medications
  • Obsessive behaviours to avoid or minimise flare episodes
  • Long-term systemic effects – e.g. dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system 
  • Significant morbidity and mortality
  • Diminished quality of life, chronicity and disability
  • Functional impairment, e.g. unable to work or perform daily activities like shopping, cooking walking or exercise
  • Social disablement, e.g. immobility, isolation and loneliness
  • Mental health and cognitive difficulties – depression, anxiety, agoraphobia, breakdown in relationships, attempts at taking own life
  • Amputation of limbs